1- Read the following key reading: Bourriaud, N. (2002). Postproduction: Culture as Screenplay: How Art Reprograms The World

2- Watch the following key ‘Reading’: (2009). “David Carson on Design.” 

3- Answer the questions

a) What do you think Bourriaud means by the term ‘Postproduction’?

With the term ‘postproduction’, Bourriauds means: a new kind of art that makes use of already existing material as a base, to create a new piece. It is a kind of art that gathers knowledge from different periods of time and that adds the present essence of the artist, thus building a new piece created from a different perspective and with a more acute angle of insight.

b) How, if at all, does David Carson fit into Bourriauds idea of a ‘Semionaut’?

Semionaut comes from the word ‘semiotics’ which is the study of symbols and their interpretation. When Burriauds talks about ‘Semionauts’ in the text, he is talking about people who use existing symbols and their meaning to build a new symbol with a reformed meaning. Even though it is new, it incorporates past knowledge, aesthetics, and meanings as well as adding a new insight and way of functioning.

In this video, David Carson starts talking, showing and describing different signs, and then, he gives extra meaning to thoes adding his own perspective and creating, hence, a new meaning.

One example is when he shows two pictures of a garage door with a “no parking” sentence written on them. The first one is quite inexpressive, just informative, whereas the second one is badly written with big letters that gives a feeling of anger. David Carson start showing the pictures and ends up giving face to the author of the writing imagining that he is a serial killer.


There is a quote that I personally like in this video and that is about this subject, it says: “While people are engaged in creating a totally different world they always form vivid images of the preceding world.”

c) Find an example of a film, a game or other media artefact that you would consider ‘Postproduction’ and describe how it fits that definition.

The song “feel this moment” by Pitbull and Christina Aguilera is a Postproduction piece that uses the melody of “Take on me” by A-ha.

It is clearly the same melody with several changes that adapts the song to the current trend in music. It keeps a piece of the melody keeping thus a bit of the past and some memories from who can still remember this song. Nevertheless, it changes the beat and the lyric giving to the song an absolutely new spirit and making it a new piece, not a copy.

Pibull – Feel this moment ft Christina Aguilera

a-ha Take on me



1-Read the follow key reading: Barthes, R. (1967). The Death of The Author. Aspen. 5-6

2- According to Barthes, we saw the emergence of the concept of “author” at the end of the middle ages as a result of a more rational way of thinking, and the change in the concept of ‘individualisation’ of people.

3- According to Barthes’ notion of literary criticism, any piece is seen as a reflection and creation of the author. It happens because we have an individualist point of view that makes people the centre of their creations, thoughts and acts. Therefore, when we contemplate a piece of work we see it as a consequence of an author feature, never as a piece itself without precedent. We always look for the origin and we find this inception in the author.

4- According to Barthes, the one who constructs the meaning of the text, ultimately, is the reader, by means of their interpretation.

5- I will illustrate this text by talking about an affair on twitter that caused a huge uproar in social media society. It was posted by Justine Sacco, the communication manager at IAC (Inter Active Corp) a couple of months ago. 

She was travelling to Cape Town, in South Africa, and shortly before she jumped on the plane she tweeted the following: “Going to Africa. Hope I don’t get AIDS. Just kidding. I’m white.”. By the time she had landed, having been on the plane for twelve hours, the text had already gone around the world and a big controversy was taking place.

Analysing this case, we can see clearly how the audience created the meaning and interpretation of the text instead of the author. When she wrote the text she wasn’t expecting it to have such a negative social impact and to cause such debate. It was probably, in her mind, a flippant remark meant as a joke (tasteless as it was). However, those who ultimately created the meaning of the text were the audience with their negative comments, disapproval and consequent spreading of the tweet.   


On the other hand, I can see a point that goes against “the death-of-the-author” idea the text describes. In the above instance, for example, the audience judged her as ‘the author’, to be the perpetrator of the crime. Giving her the author position and judging her for it.

Therefore, my reflection is that audiences recognise author and support that idea. This is to say that, if they are the creators of the meaning, author exists, in this world of individualist personality, now more than ever. And everyone, is, also now more than ever, the really owner of their words.



As Manovich, L. explains in Media-independence vs media-specific techniques (2013): “media-independent techniques are general concepts translated into algorithms, which can operate on particular data types.”. These are several concepts that have become very commonly used in different technological devices. Therefore, the concept remains the same while the algorithm that makes it work in different platforms changes.

Manovich, L. names three ‘media-independent techniques’: searchability, findability and linkability.

I have thought about four concepts that could be included in ‘media-independent techniques’. Namely, those of “likeability”, “shareability”, “uploadablity” and “commentability”.

The concept of audience has changed a lot since web 2.0 started taking place. Now audiences have become users and now they (or we) have more power than ever before and their (or our) opinion is something that matters. Therefore, information that shows the thoughts, interests, opinions and preferences of the public, is growing, and starting to have an important place on the net. This is why the techniques that I have mentioned above are valuable bridges between users and the net that help to show information in a structured and clear way.

It is now possible for anyone to like, share, upload and comment on videos, audio, articles, webs, profiles and so on. Moreover, you can do it with any device at any moment wherever you are.

These four concepts could probably be summarised in a fourth, that of “opinionability”.